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This article is about the city of Manchester in England.
For the larger conurbation, see Greater Manchester Built-up Area. state of New Hampshire, see Manchester, New Hampshire.
Its fortunes declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration.
It is notable for its architecture, culture, musical exports, media links, scientific and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections.
Trade, and feeding the growing population, required a large transport and distribution infrastructure: the canal system was extended, and Manchester became one end of the world's first intercity passenger railway—the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.
Competition between the various forms of transport kept costs down. This enabled oceangoing ships to sail right into the Port of Manchester.
Large quantities of machinery, including cotton processing plant, were exported around the world.
The Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in what is now known as Northern England; they had a stronghold in the locality at a sandstone outcrop on which Manchester Cathedral now stands, opposite the banks of the River Irwell.
Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford.
Manchester's history is concerned with textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution.
The great majority of cotton spinning took place in the towns of south Lancashire and north Cheshire, and Manchester was for a time the most productive centre of cotton processing, The industrial revolution brought about huge change in Manchester and was key to the increase in Manchester's population.